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Policies Of Chaos

Policies of Chaos PDF
Author: Lynn T. White III
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400860571
Size: 10.92 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 382
View: 5920

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The tumult of the Cultural Revolution after 1966 is often blamed on a few leaders in Beijing, or on long-term egalitarian ideals, or on communist or Chinese political cultures. Lynn White shows, however, that the chaos resulted mainly from reactions by masses of individuals and small groups to three specific policies of administrative manipulation: labeling groups, designating bosses, and legitimating violence in political campaigns. These habits of local organization were common after 1949 and gave the state success in short-term revolutionary aims, despite scarce resources and staff--but they also drove millions to attack each other later. First, measures accumulated before 1966 to give people bad or good names (such as "rightist" or "worker"); these set a family's access to employment, education, residence, and rations--so they gave interests to potential conflict groups. Second, policies for bossism went far beyond Confucian patronage patterns, making work units tightly dependent on Party monitors--so rational individuals either pandered to local bosses or (when they could) deposed them. Third, the institutionalized violence of political campaigns both mobilized activists and scared others into compliance. These organizational measures were often effective in the short run before 1966 but accumulated social costs that China paid later. The book ends with comparisons to past cases of mass urban ostracism in other countries, and it suggests how such tragedies may be forecast or prevented in the future. Originally published in 1989. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Policies Of Chaos

Policies of Chaos PDF
Author: Lynn T. White
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780608025735
Size: 11.56 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 378
View: 7571

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The Politics And Policies Of Big Data

The Politics and Policies of Big Data PDF
Author: Ann Rudinow Sætnan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351866540
Size: 56.43 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 358
View: 6042

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Big Data, gathered together and re-analysed, can be used to form endless variations of our persons - so-called ‘data doubles’. Whilst never a precise portrayal of who we are, they unarguably contain glimpses of details about us that, when deployed into various routines (such as management, policing and advertising) can affect us in many ways. How are we to deal with Big Data? When is it beneficial to us? When is it harmful? How might we regulate it? Offering careful and critical analyses, this timely volume aims to broaden well-informed, unprejudiced discourse, focusing on: the tenets of Big Data, the politics of governance and regulation; and Big Data practices, performance and resistance. An interdisciplinary volume, The Politics of Big Data will appeal to undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as postdoctoral and senior researchers interested in fields such as Technology, Politics and Surveillance.

Red Inc

Red Inc  PDF
Author: Robert K. Schaeffer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317253116
Size: 10.89 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 2361

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Red Inc. takes issue with the view that economic development will eventually promote democracy. It outlines in detail the enormous social costs of the rapid rise of China's economy. Although many observers argue that Deng Xiaoping introduced capitalism to China in the late 1970s, Schaeffer believes that capitalist development really began during the 1950s under Mao Zedong. But although Mao made relentless efforts to generate the capital needed to finance economic development, his regime failed to promote any real growth. Schaeffer shows that the remarkable rise of its economy in recent years has provided China with new and often corrupt sources of wealth and power that have enabled it to resist democracy. He brings into sharp focus the consequence of the regime's uncompromising approach to capital accumulation.

Modern Tyrants

Modern Tyrants PDF
Author: Daniel Chirot
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691027777
Size: 15.27 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 496
View: 3066

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Along with its much vaunted progress in scientific and economic realms, the twentieth century has witnessed the rise of the most brutal and oppressive regimes in the history of humankind. Even with the collapse of Marxism, current instances of "ethnic cleansing" remind us that tyranny persists in our own age and shows no sign of abating. Daniel Chirot offers an important and timely study of modern tyrants, both revealing the forces that allow them to come to power and helping us to predict where they may arise in the future.

The Defense Policies Of Nations

The Defense Policies of Nations PDF
Author: Douglas J. Murray
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801847943
Size: 30.60 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 611
View: 4336

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Now in its third edition, The Defense Policies of Nations has been thoroughly updated to take into account the dramatic developments of recent years: the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the resurgence of East Asian powers, the emergence of newly independent nations in Eastern Europe, the continuing instability of the Middle East, and the growing importance of third world nations in global security matters. "For those dealing with national defense issues on a daily basis, or even for those interested in the subject because of its current relevance, The Defense Policy of Nations is must reading." -- Gen. Theodore J. Conway, Military Review. American Academy of Political and Social Science.

The Cultural Revolution

The Cultural Revolution PDF
Author: Frank Dikötter
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1408856514
Size: 45.18 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 432
View: 7468

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Acclaimed by the Daily Mail as 'definitive and harrowing' , this is the final volume of 'The People's Trilogy', begun by the Samuel Johnson prize-winning Mao's Great Famine. After the economic disaster of the Great Leap Forward that claimed tens of millions of lives between 1958 and 1962, an ageing Mao launched an ambitious scheme to shore up his reputation and eliminate those he viewed as a threat to his legacy. The stated goal of the Cultural Revolution was to purge the country of bourgeois, capitalist elements he claimed were threatening genuine communist ideology. But the Chairman also used the Cultural Revolution to turn on his colleagues, some of them longstanding comrades-in-arms, subjecting them to public humiliation, imprisonment and torture. Young students formed Red Guards, vowing to defend the Chairman to the death, but soon rival factions started fighting each other in the streets with semi-automatic weapons in the name of revolutionary purity. As the country descended into chaos, the military intervened, turning China into a garrison state marked by bloody purges that crushed as many as one in fifty people. When the army itself fell victim to the Cultural Revolution, ordinary people used the political chaos to resurrect the marked and hollow out the party's ideology. In short, they buried Maoism. In-depth interviews and archival research at last give voice to the people and the complex choices they faced, undermining the picture of conformity that is often understood to have characterised the last years of Mao's regime. By demonstrating that decollectivisation from below was an unintended consequence of a decade of violent purges and entrenched fear, Frank Dikotter casts China's most tumultuous era in a wholly new light. Written with unprecedented access to previously classified party documents from secret police reports to unexpurgated versions of leadership speeches, this third chapter in Frank Dikotter's extraordinarily lucid and ground-breaking 'People's Trilogy' is a devastating reassessment of the history of the People's Republic of China.

The Conscription Society

The Conscription Society PDF
Author: Gregory James Kasza
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300062427
Size: 73.47 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 217
View: 4342

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The ability to organize millions of people for political purposes is a potent and relatively recent weapon in the struggle for power. Political scientists have studied two types of mass organization, the political party and the interest group. In this book Gregory Kasza examines a third type, which he calls the administered mass organization. AMOs are mass civilian bodies created by authoritarian regimes to implement public policy. Officials use them to organize youths, workers, women, or members of other social sectors into bodies resembling the mass conscript army. A network of AMOs produces a conscription society, a major force in twentieth-century politics in over 45 countries. Using comparative history and organization theory, Kasza analyzes the politics of the conscription society in both military and single-party regimes. He discusses the origins of AMOs in Japan, the Soviet Union, and Fascist Italy and their subsequent spread to China, Egypt, Nazi Germany, Peru, Poland, and Yugoslavia. He focuses on the use of AMOs to curb political opposition, to mobilize for war, and to shift control over the means of production. Kasza shows how, in the hands of despotic rulers, AMOs have contributed to the extremes of political barbarism characteristic of the twentieth century.

The Black Book Of Communism

The Black Book of Communism PDF
Author: G. Peter Albert
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674076082
Size: 71.35 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 858
View: 6423

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Collects and analyzes seventy years of communist crimes that offer details on Kim Sung's Korea, Vietnam under "Uncle Ho," and Cuba under Castro.

The Politics And Policies Of Sub Saharan Africa

The Politics and Policies of Sub Saharan Africa PDF
Author: Robert A. Dibie
Publisher: University Press of America
ISBN: 9780761820949
Size: 80.55 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 366
View: 4325

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This book attempts to correct the impression created by Western media that Sub-Saharan Africa is in a state of anarchy. The text analyzes and shows that while many Sub-Saharan African nations are experiencing the worst time of their history, others are enjoying their best times. Thus, the text argues that although some parts of Africa are experiencing crisis, the continent is also a fine region of major new experiments in governance, peace building and free market transformation programs. Finally, the text focuses some of its analyses on the colonial legacy, economic and ethnic transformation, indigenous institutions and other forces that seem to influence the governance of Sub-Saharan African nations.