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The Shallow Graves Of Rwanda

The Shallow Graves of Rwanda PDF
Author: Shaharyar M. Khan
Publisher: I.B. Tauris
ISBN: 9781860646164
Size: 70.93 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 248
View: 3234

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How does the world community, and particularly the United Nations, deal with genocide? "The Shallow Graves of Rwanda" is an account of the UN Secretary-General's Special Representative in Rwanda in the mid-1990s. Shaharyar M. Khan's tenure began in the immediate aftermath of the downing of President Habarimana's plane on 6 April 1994 and the massacres that followed. Khan details his encounters with the region's leading actors - Rwanda's soldiers and politicians, victims and survivors, as well as some of the perpetrators of the massacres. He also dealt with people involved in international relief and humanitarian relief efforts, trying to revive the stricken villages and towns and tackle the floods of refugees and orphaned children. Setting everyday events in Rwanda against the backdrop of international politics, this book reveals how the UN works on the ground and at headquarters and explores the problems of peacekeeping. The author backs up his conclusions on the phenomenon and nature of genocide with documentary evidence and shows how the lessons of Rwanda can provide valuable guidance for the future.

Amnesie Amnestie Oder Aufarbeitung

Amnesie  Amnestie oder Aufarbeitung  PDF
Author: Sigmar Schmidt
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783531138688
Size: 51.63 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : de
Pages : 309
View: 4409

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Nicht nur in Deutschland ist die politische Gegenwart durch Belastungen einer autoritären Vergangenheit gekennzeichnet. In diesem Sammelband wird theoretisch und empirisch vergleichend der Umgang mit der Vergangenheit in lateinamerikanischen, asiatischen, osteuropäischen und afrikanischen Ländern behandelt. Dabei wird in erster Linie nach Zusammenhängen zwischen der politischen Stabilität und der Aufarbeitung bzw. der Nichtaufarbeitung von Menschenrechtsverletzungen autoritärer Vorgängerregime gefragt. Deutlich wird, dass auf der einen Seite zwar ein „Schlussstrich“ - eine kollektive Amnesie - unter vergangenes Unrecht kaum möglich ist, auch wenn dies beim Übergang zu einem neuen System von den Beteiligten häufig beabsichtigt war. Auf der anderen Seite bleibt die Auseinandersetzung mit der Vergangenheit aber oftmals oberflächlich und folgenlos. Der Band beschäftigt sich in einem ersten Teil mit der „doppelten“ Vergangenheitsaufarbeitung in Deutschland, enthält Überblickbeiträge zur Begrifflichkeit und zu Lateinamerika und Osteuropa sowie ausführliche Länderstudien zu Russland, Polen, Spanien, Ruanda, Südafrika, Namibia, Kambodscha und Chile.

Clinton Am Kivu See

Clinton am Kivu See PDF
Author: Helmut Strizek
Publisher: Peter Lang
ISBN: 9783631605639
Size: 14.79 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Political Science
Languages : de
Pages : 408
View: 1607

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In der Regierungszeit des amerikanischen Präsidenten Bill Clinton von 1993 bis 2001 ist das zentrale Afrika aus den Fugen geraten. Die amerikanische Politik hat dazu beigetragen. Auslöser für eine Kettenreaktion von Katastrophen (Ruanda-Krieg 1994 und die beiden Kongo-Kriege 1996/1997 und 1998/1999) war Clintons «Flucht aus Somalia» nach dem Desaster von Mogadischu am 3. Oktober 1993. Dem Wirken der Clinton-Administration östlich und westlich des Kivu-Sees und dem Scheitern der nach dem Fall der Berliner Mauer eingeleiteten Demokratisierung auch in diesem Teil der Welt wird in der Untersuchung nachgespürt. Dabei taucht ein «Sudan-Syndrom» als möglicher Erklärungsschlüssel für die amerikanische Politik seit 1993 auf.

Stopping Mass Killings In Africa

Stopping Mass Killings in Africa PDF
Author: Douglas Carl Peifer
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437912818
Size: 33.61 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 188
View: 3968

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This is a compendium of case studies that seek to describe the best uses of military power, particularly airpower, in response to genocide. The writers examine recent instances of genocide in Somalia, Rwanda, and Côte d¿Ivoire to draw out useful generalizations concerning the nature of genocide, international reactions to genocide, and effective responses to genocide and the possibility of genocide.

Rwanda 1994

Rwanda 1994 PDF
Author: Barrie Collins
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137022329
Size: 14.85 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 5231

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Through a rigorous critique of the dominant narrative of the Rwandan genocide, Collins provides an alternative argument to the debate situating the killings within a historically-specific context and drawing out a dynamic interplay between national and international actors.

Re Imagining Rwanda

Re Imagining Rwanda PDF
Author: Johan Pottier
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521528733
Size: 62.17 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 251
View: 787

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Pottier examines how a persuasive analysis of the situation in Rwanda exacerbated the original crisis.

The Rwandan Genocide On Film

The Rwandan Genocide on Film PDF
Author: Matthew Edwards
Publisher: McFarland
ISBN: 1476631565
Size: 69.47 MB
Format: PDF
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 1062

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The Rwandan genocide was one of the most shameful events of the 20th century. Many Westerners’ understanding of it is based upon the Oscar-winning film Hotel Rwanda and the critically acclaimed Shooting Dogs. Yet how accurately do these films depict events in Rwanda in 1994? Drawing on new scholarship, this collection of essays explores a variety of feature films and documentaries about the genocide to understand its expression in both Western and Rwandan cinema. Interviews with filmmakers are featured, including journalist Steve Bradshaw (BBC’s Panorama), director Nick Hughes (100 Days), director Lee Isaac Chung (Munyurangabo) and Rwandan filmmakers Eric Kabera and Kivu Ruhorahoza.

A History Of Rwandan Identity And Trauma

A History of Rwandan Identity and Trauma PDF
Author: Randall Fegley
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 149851944X
Size: 43.29 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 202
View: 1813

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Few societies have faced the difficulties of identity building experienced by Rwanda. This book’s introduction reviews literature on the concepts of myth and trauma, and then introduces basic information on Rwanda and how it has been viewed by the outside world. Chapter One describes early Rwanda’s political and cultural development, traditional narratives, group migrations, the effects of German and later Belgian colonialism, and the introduction of Christianity. It concludes with a look at how this early history has been interpreted and reinterpreted. The second chapter discusses the end of Tutsi dominance and the 1959 Hutu Revolution. It details Hutu Power ideology, Belgian domestic politics, early acts of genocide, refugee movements, and economic and political stagnation. The text documents the development of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, its 1990 invasion, and the Arusha peace process. An account of the 1994 genocide follows. However, as this has been covered in numerous other works, descriptions are limited to key events and general patterns. The chapter ends with a review of films, books, and other publications that brought Rwanda’s plight to a worldwide audience, but that also created new myths. Chapter Three examines the country’s post-genocide reconstruction and attempts to bring justice and reconciliation through the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in Tanzania and gacaca courts domestically. Rwanda’s impressive record of economic progress over the last two decades is detailed. However, prospects for democracy have diminished, as its leaders have become increasingly sensitive to criticism and fearful of renewed divisions. Descriptions of the process of developing school curriculums to explain past atrocities, the new myths it created, and their possible consequences comprise most of Chapter Four. The final chapter offers conclusions on the effects of past mythologies and the trauma they have wrought. It draws comparisons with other divided societies and their approaches to dealing with the past. These include Burundi, Ethiopia, South Africa, the United States, Taiwan, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, and Singapore. An extensive bibliography of books, theses, conference papers, official documents, articles, periodicals, journals, films, websites, other media, and interviews includes translations of titles in Kinyarwanda, French, Dutch, and German.

The Gacaca Courts Post Genocide Justice And Reconciliation In Rwanda

The Gacaca Courts  Post Genocide Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda PDF
Author: Phil Clark
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139490168
Size: 38.30 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 7344

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Since 2001, the Gacaca community courts have been the centrepiece of Rwanda's justice and reconciliation programme. Nearly every adult Rwandan has participated in the trials, principally by providing eyewitness testimony concerning genocide crimes. Lawyers are banned from any official involvement, an issue that has generated sustained criticism from human rights organisations and international scepticism regarding Gacaca's efficacy. Drawing on more than six years of fieldwork in Rwanda and nearly five hundred interviews with participants in trials, this in-depth ethnographic investigation of a complex transitional justice institution explores the ways in which Rwandans interpret Gacaca. Its conclusions provide indispensable insight into post-genocide justice and reconciliation, as well as the population's views on the future of Rwanda itself.

The Path To Genocide In Rwanda

The Path to Genocide in Rwanda PDF
Author: Omar Shahabudin McDoom
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108870325
Size: 59.46 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 1398

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The shocking characteristics of Rwanda's genocide in 1994 have etched themselves indelibly on the global conscience. The Path to Genocide in Rwanda combines extensive, original field data with some of the best existing evidence to evaluate the myriad theories behind the genocide and to offer a rigorous and comprehensive explanation of how and why it occurred, and why so many Rwandans participated in it. Drawing on interviews with over three hundred Rwandans, Omar Shahabudin McDoom systematically compares those who participated in the violence against those who did not. He contrasts communities that experienced violence early with communities where violence began late, as well as communities where violence was limited with communities where it was massive. His findings offer new perspectives on some of the most troubling questions concerning the genocide, while also providing a broader engagement with key theoretical debates in the study of genocides and ethnic conflict.

The Bishop Of Rwanda

The Bishop of Rwanda PDF
Author: John Rucyahana
Publisher: Thomas Nelson
ISBN: 1418573264
Size: 41.76 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Biography & Autobiography
Languages : en
Pages : 256
View: 7361

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In 1994, as his country descended into the madness of genocide, Anglican Bishop John Rucyahana underwent the mind-numbing pain of having members of his church and family butchered. John refused to become a part of the systemic hatred. He founded the Sonrise orphanage and school for children orphaned in the genocide, and he now leads reconciliation efforts between his own Tutsi people, the victims of this horrific massacre, and the perpetrators, the Hutus. His remarkable story is one that demands to be told.

The Elgar Companion To The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda

The Elgar Companion to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda PDF
Author: Anne-Marie de Brouwer
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1784711705
Size: 55.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 544
View: 7128

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The Elgar Companion to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda is a one-stop reference resource on this complex tribunal, established in the aftermath of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, which closed its doors on 31 December 2015. This Companion provides an insightful account of the workings and legacy of the ICTR in the field of international criminal justice.

The Routledge Handbook Of The Bioarchaeology Of Human Conflict

The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict PDF
Author: Christopher Knüsel
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134677979
Size: 49.30 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 706
View: 3765

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If human burials were our only window onto the past, what story would they tell? Skeletal injuries constitute the most direct and unambiguous evidence for violence in the past. Whereas weapons or defenses may simply be statements of prestige or status and written sources are characteristically biased and incomplete, human remains offer clear and unequivocal evidence of physical aggression reaching as far back as we have burials to examine. Warfare is often described as ‘senseless’ and as having no place in society. Consequently, its place in social relations and societal change remains obscure. The studies in The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict present an overview of the nature and development of human conflict from prehistory to recent times as evidenced by the remains of past people themselves in order to explore the social contexts in which such injuries were inflicted. A broadly chronological approach is taken from prehistory through to recent conflicts, however this book is not simply a catalogue of injuries illustrating weapon development or a narrative detailing ‘progress’ in warfare but rather provides a framework in which to explore both continuity and change based on a range of important themes which hold continuing relevance throughout human development.

Journey Into Darkness

Journey into Darkness PDF
Author: Thomas P. Odom
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585444571
Size: 41.72 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 312
View: 6164

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In July 1994, Thomas P. Odom was part of the U.S. Embassy team that responded to the Goma refugee crisis. He witnessed the deaths of 70,000 refugees in a single week. In the previous three months of escalating violence, the Rwandan genocide had claimed 800,000 dead. Now, in this vivid and unsettling new book, Odom offers the first insider look at these devastating events before, during, and after the genocide. Odom draws on his years of experience as a Defense Attaché and foreign area specialist in the United States Army to offer a complete picture of the situation in Zaire and Rwanda, focusing on two U.S. embassies, intelligence operations, U.N. peacekeeping efforts, and regional reactions. His team attempted to slow the death by cholera of refugees in Goma, guiding in a U.S. Joint Task Force and Operation Support Hope and remaining until the United States withdrew its forces forty days later. After U.S. forces departed, Odom crossed into Rwanda to spend the next eighteen months reestablishing the embassy, working with the Rwandan government, and creating the U.S.-Rwandan Demining office. Odom assisted the U.S. Ambassador and served as the principal military advisor on Rwanda to the U.S. Department of Defense and National Security Council throughout his time in Rwanda. His book candidly reveals Odom’s frustration with Washington as his predictions that a larger war was coming were ignored. Unfortunately, he was proven correct: the current death toll in that unfortunate country is close to three million. Odom’s account of the events in Rwanda illustrate not only illustrate how failures in intelligence and policy happen, but also show that a human context is necessary to comprehend these political decisions.

The Order Of Genocide

The Order of Genocide PDF
Author: Scott Straus
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801467152
Size: 30.71 MB
Format: PDF
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 296
View: 3350

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The Rwandan genocide has become a touchstone for debates about the causes of mass violence and the responsibilities of the international community. Yet a number of key questions about this tragedy remain unanswered: How did the violence spread from community to community and so rapidly engulf the nation? Why did individuals make decisions that led them to take up machetes against their neighbors? And what was the logic that drove the campaign of extermination? According to Scott Straus, a social scientist and former journalist in East Africa for several years (who received a Pulitzer Prize nomination for his reporting for the Houston Chronicle), many of the widely held beliefs about the causes and course of genocide in Rwanda are incomplete. They focus largely on the actions of the ruling elite or the inaction of the international community. Considerably less is known about how and why elite decisions became widespread exterminatory violence. Challenging the prevailing wisdom, Straus provides substantial new evidence about local patterns of violence, using original research-including the most comprehensive surveys yet undertaken among convicted perpetrators-to assess competing theories about the causes and dynamics of the genocide. Current interpretations stress three main causes for the genocide: ethnic identity, ideology, and mass-media indoctrination (in particular the influence of hate radio). Straus's research does not deny the importance of ethnicity, but he finds that it operated more as a background condition. Instead, Straus emphasizes fear and intra-ethnic intimidation as the primary drivers of the violence. A defensive civil war and the assassination of a president created a feeling of acute insecurity. Rwanda's unusually effective state was also central, as was the country's geography and population density, which limited the number of exit options for both victims and perpetrators. In conclusion, Straus steps back from the particulars of the Rwandan genocide to offer a new, dynamic model for understanding other instances of genocide in recent history-the Holocaust, Armenia, Cambodia, the Balkans-and assessing the future likelihood of such events.

A People Betrayed

A People Betrayed PDF
Author: Linda Melvern
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1786995468
Size: 72.84 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 288
View: 4515

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Events in Rwanda in 1994 mark a landmark in the history of modern genocide. Up to one million people were killed in a planned public and political campaign. In the face of indisputable evidence, the UN Security Council failed miserably in its response. In this classic of investigative journalism, Linda Melvern tells the compelling story of what really happened, revealing both the scale, speed and intensity of the unfolding genocide, as well as exposing the governments and individuals who could have prevented what was happening, if they had chosen to act. The book also tells the unrecognised heroism of those who stayed on during the genocide - from volunteer peacekeepers to courageous NGO workers. Twenty-five years on from one of the darkest episodes in modern history, A People Betrayed is a shocking indictment of how Rwanda was ignored then and how today it is remembered in the West.