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The Zimmermann Telegram

The Zimmermann Telegram PDF
Author: Barbara Wertheim Tuchman
Publisher: Random House Trade Paperbacks
ISBN: 0345324250
Size: 75.68 MB
Format: PDF
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 244
View: 1728

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Documents the incidents surrounding a German diplomat's bid for international power that led to America's entry into World War I

The Zimmermann Telegram

The Zimmermann Telegram PDF
Author: Thomas Boghardt
Publisher: Naval Inst Press
ISBN: 9781612511481
Size: 12.73 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 319
View: 7649

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By the winter of 1916/17, World War I had reached a deadlock. While the Allies commanded greater resources and fielded more soldiers than the Central Powers, German armies had penetrated deep into Russia and France, and tenaciously held on to their conquered empire. Hoping to break the stalemate on the western front, the exhausted Allies sought to bring the neutral United States into the conflict. A golden opportunity to force American intervention seemed at hand when British naval intelligence intercepted a secret telegram detailing a German alliance offer to Mexico. In it, Berlin's foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmermann, offered his country's support to Mexico for re-conquering "the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona" in exchange for a Mexican attack on the United States, should the latter enter the war on the side of the Allies. The British handed a copy of the Telegram to the American government, which in turn leaked it to the press. On March 1, 1917, the Telegram made headline news across the United States, and five weeks later, America entered World War I. Based on an examination of virtually all available German, British, and U.S. government records, this book presents the definitive account of the Telegram and questions many traditional views on the origins, cryptanalysis, and impact of the German alliance scheme. While the Telegram has often been described as the final step in a carefully planned German strategy to gain a foothold in the western hemisphere, this book argues that the scheme was a spontaneous initiative by a minor German foreign office official, which gained traction only because of a lack of supervision and coordination at the top echelon of the German government. On the other hand, the book argues, American and British secret services had collaborated closely since 1915 to bring the United States into the war, and the Telegram's interception and disclosure represented the crowning achievement of this clandestine Anglo-American intelligence alliance. Moreover, the book explicitly challenges the widely accepted notion that the Telegram's publication in the U.S. press rallied Americans for war. Instead, it contends that the Telegram divided the public by poisoning the debate over intervention, and by failing to offer peace-minded Americans a convincing rationale for supporting the war. The book also examines the Telegram's effect on the memory of World War I through the twentieth century and beyond.

The Zimmermann Telegram

The Zimmermann Telegram PDF
Author: Barbara Tuchman
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780241968260
Size: 44.27 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 608
View: 5190

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"Nothing can stop an enemy from picking wireless messages out of the free air - and nothing did. In England, Room 40 was born . . . ' In January 1917, with the First World War locked in terrible stalemate and America still neutral, German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmerman gambled the future of the conflict on a single telegram. But this message was intercepted and decoded in Whitehall's legendary Room 40 - and Zimmerman's audacious scheme for world domination was exposed, bringing America into the war and changing the course of history. The story of how this happened and the incalculable consequences are thrillingly told in Barbara Tuchman's brilliant exploration."

The Zimmermann Telegram

The Zimmermann Telegram PDF
Author: Thomas Boghardt
Publisher: Naval Institute Press
ISBN: 1612511473
Size: 78.23 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 320
View: 7614

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By the winter of 1916/17, World War I had reached a deadlock. While the Allies commanded greater resources and fielded more soldiers than the Central Powers, German armies had penetrated deep into Russia and France, and tenaciously held on to their conquered empire. Hoping to break the stalemate on the western front, the exhausted Allies sought to bring the neutral United States into the conflict. A golden opportunity to force American intervention seemed at hand when British naval intelligence intercepted a secret telegram detailing a German alliance offer to Mexico. In it, Berlin’s foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmermann, offered his country’s support to Mexico for re-conquering “the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona” in exchange for a Mexican attack on the United States, should the latter enter the war on the side of the Allies. The British handed a copy of the Telegram to the American government, which in turn leaked it to the press. On March 1, 1917, the Telegram made headline news across the United States, and five weeks later, America entered World War I. Based on an examination of virtually all available German, British, and U.S. government records, this book presents the definitive account of the Telegram and questions many traditional views on the origins, cryptanalysis, and impact of the German alliance scheme. While the Telegram has often been described as the final step in a carefully planned German strategy to gain a foothold in the western hemisphere, this book argues that the scheme was a spontaneous initiative by a minor German foreign office official, which gained traction only because of a lack of supervision and coordination at the top echelon of the German government. On the other hand, the book argues, American and British secret services had collaborated closely since 1915 to bring the United States into the war, and the Telegram’s interception and disclosure represented the crowning achievement of this clandestine Anglo-American intelligence alliance. Moreover, the book explicitly challenges the widely accepted notion that the Telegram’s publication in the U.S. press rallied Americans for war. Instead, it contends that the Telegram divided the public by poisoning the debate over intervention, and by failing to offer peace-minded Americans a convincing rationale for supporting the war. The book also examines the Telegram’s effect on the memory of World War I through the twentieth century and beyond.

The Proud Tower

The Proud Tower PDF
Author: Barbara W. Tuchman
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 0307798119
Size: 42.81 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 608
View: 7020

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The Proud Tower, the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Guns of August, and The Zimmerman Telegram comprise Barbara W. Tuchman’s classic histories of the First World War era During the fateful quarter century leading up to World War I, the climax of a century of rapid, unprecedented change, a privileged few enjoyed Olympian luxury as the underclass was “heaving in its pain, its power, and its hate.” In The Proud Tower, Barbara W. Tuchman brings the era to vivid life: the decline of the Edwardian aristocracy; the Anarchists of Europe and America; Germany and its self-depicted hero, Richard Strauss; Diaghilev’s Russian ballet and Stravinsky’s music; the Dreyfus Affair; the Peace Conferences in The Hague; and the enthusiasm and tragedy of Socialism, epitomized by the assassination of Jean Jaurès on the night the Great War began and an epoch came to a close. Praise for The Proud Tower “[Barbara W. Tuchman’s] Pulitzer Prize–winning The Guns of August was an expert evocation of the first spasm of the 1914–1918 war. She brings the same narrative gifts and panoramic camera eye to her portrait of the antebellum world.”—Newsweek “A rare combination of impeccable scholarship and literary polish . . . It would be impossible to read The Proud Tower without pleasure and admiration.”—The New York Times “An exquisitely written and thoroughly engrossing work . . . The author’s knowledge and skill are so impressive that they whet the appetite for more.”—Chicago Tribune “[Tuchman] tells her story with cool wit and warm understanding.”—Time

Bible And Sword

Bible and Sword PDF
Author: Barbara Wertheim Tuchman
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 70.96 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Great Britain
Languages : en
Pages : 412
View: 2218

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In Bible and Sword Barbara Tuchman provides a stirring account of the religious, cultural and political motives which led to the British conquest of the Holy Land in 1917 and to the Balfour Declaration.

The Zimmermann Telegram

The Zimmermann Telegram PDF
Author: Barbara Wertheim Tuchman
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 17.96 MB
Format: PDF
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 224
View: 4240

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Practicing History

Practicing History PDF
Author: Barbara W. Tuchman
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 0307798550
Size: 55.19 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 352
View: 7416

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Celebrated for bringing a personal touch to history in her Pulitzer Prize–winning epic The Guns of August and other classic books, Barbara W. Tuchman reflects on world events and the historian’s craft in these perceptive, essential essays. From thoughtful pieces on the historian’s role to striking insights into America’s past and present to trenchant observations on the international scene, Barbara W. Tuchman looks at history in a unique way and draws lessons from what she sees. Spanning more than four decades of writing in The New York Times Magazine, The Atlantic, Foreign Affairs, Harper’s, The Nation, and The Saturday Evening Post, Tuchman weighs in on a range of eclectic topics, from Israel and Mao Tse-tung to a Freudian reading of Woodrow Wilson. This is a splendid body of work, the story of a lifetime spent “practicing history.” Praise for Practicing History “Persuades and enthralls . . . I can think of no better primer for the nonexpert who wishes to learn history.”—Chicago Sun-Times “Provocative, consistent, and beautifully readable, an event not to be missed by history buffs.”—Baltimore Sun “A delight to read.”—The New York Times Book Review

War Against War

War Against War PDF
Author: Michael Kazin
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1476705925
Size: 42.91 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 400
View: 3211

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A dramatic account of the Americans who tried to stop their nation from fighting in the First World War—and came close to succeeding. In this “fascinating” (Los Angeles Times) narrative, Michael Kazin brings us into the ranks of one of the largest, most diverse, and most sophisticated peace coalitions in US history. The activists came from a variety of backgrounds: wealthy, middle, and working class; urban and rural; white and black; Christian and Jewish and atheist. They mounted street demonstrations and popular exhibitions, attracted prominent leaders from the labor and suffrage movements, ran peace candidates for local and federal office, met with President Woodrow Wilson to make their case, and founded new organizations that endured beyond the cause. For almost three years, they helped prevent Congress from authorizing a massive increase in the size of the US army—a step advocated by ex-president Theodore Roosevelt. When the Great War’s bitter legacy led to the next world war, the warnings of these peace activists turned into a tragic prophecy—and the beginning of a surveillance state that still endures today. Peopled with unforgettable characters and written with riveting moral urgency, War Against War is a “fine, sorrowful history” (The New York Times) and “a timely reminder of how easily the will of the majority can be thwarted in even the mightiest of democracies” (The New York Times Book Review).

Teaching With Documents

Teaching with Documents PDF
Author: National Archives
Publisher: National Archives Trust Fund Board
ISBN:
Size: 51.48 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 241
View: 3991

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Guide for social studies teachers in using primary sources, particularly those available from the National Archives, to teach history.

Under The Wire

Under the Wire PDF
Author: David Paull NICKLES
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674041550
Size: 46.36 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 271
View: 5333

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How did the telegraph, a new and revolutionary form of communication, affect diplomats, who tended to resist change? In a study based on impressive multinational research, David Paull Nickles examines the critical impact of the telegraph on the diplomacy of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Case studies in crisis diplomacy--the War of 1812, the Trent affair during the U.S. Civil War, and the famous 1917 Zimmermann telegram--introduce wide-ranging thematic discussions on the autonomy of diplomats; the effects of increased speed on decision making and public opinion; the neglected role of clerks in diplomacy; and the issues of expense, garbled text, espionage, and technophobia that initially made foreign ministries wary of telegraphy. Ultimately, the introduction of the telegraph contributed to the centralization of foreign ministries and the rising importance of signals intelligence. The faster pace of diplomatic disputes invited more emotional decisions by statesmen, while public opinion often exercised a belligerent influence on crises developing over a shorter time period. Under the Wire offers a fascinating new perspective on the culture of diplomacy and the social history of technology. Table of Contents: Introduction I. Control 1. The Anglo-American Crisis of 1812 2. Diplomatic Autonomy and Telecommunications II. Speed 3. The Trent Affair 4. Speed and Diplomacy 5. Diplomatic Time III. The Medium 6. The Zimmermann Telegram 7. Technical and Economic Factors Conclusion Abbreviations Notes Acknowledgments Index Reviews of this book: David Paull Nickles has plumbed the archives of four countries to determine just how transformative [the invention of the telegraph] really was. Under the Wire is a subtle and impressive examination of history. --Christian D. Brose, Wall Street Journal In this study of the impact of telegraphy on the management of international relations, the reader is rewarded time and again by finding original observations regarding familiar events. This is a book that can have a shaping effect not only on the field of international relations but on many others, since it compels one to think hard about how changes in technology affect behavior and thought among groups with deeply rooted traditions and beliefs. --Ernest R. May, Harvard University

Why We Are At War

Why We are at War PDF
Author: Woodrow Wilson
Publisher: Library of Alexandria
ISBN:
Size: 29.58 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Germany
Languages : en
Pages : 78
View: 3420

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